FAMOUS CONTROVERSIAL MISUNDERSTOOD CONCEPT : String theory

The world of physics is ruled by two leading theories, the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

The general theory of relativity by Albert Einstein deals with gravity, a force produced by the space-time curve of celestial bodies where time follows a smooth and predictable path and is only valid at a big scale whereas quantum mechanics explains the behaviour of elementary particles at the quantum scale. Space-time curve and time follows a complex path which is fluctuating and jittery.

Let me tell you how…

According to Quantum mechanics, a particle can be present at different places at the same time.

Isn’t it astonishing!

If we apply quantum mechanics to celestial bodies, imagine having more than two suns, it will lead to total destruction of life. Also, we can not apply the general theory of relativity at the quantum scale because gravitational force cannot be explained at the microscopic level. Therefore, we need a unified theory. the theory of everything which could explain both general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

The smallest known constituent of an ordinary matter is an atom, inside the atom, there are a nucleus and revolving electrons, inside the nucleus, they’re protons and neutrons and inside protons there exist quarks. Modern physics says quarks are the smallest particles of a matter.

Do quarks really are smallest known elementary particles?

Wait! Wait! Wait!

We left with a surprise

In 1968, Gabriel Veneziano found a 200 years old book with an aim to get equations of strong nuclear force, when he builds a structure using that information it came out to be a string rather than a spherically shaped particle. the string is a dancing filament of energy which vibrates in different patterns produced by different frequencies. If we would able to make a microscope to see the elementary particles than they would be in the form of strings.

Due to these predictions and anomalies, the string theory breaks down.

1. In 1973, John Schwartz working on a mathematical proof of string theory found that it is indicating towards a massless particle.

2. In 1990’s kaluza put a bold suggestion that there might be six extra dimensions which we do not experience in our day to day life as these dimensions could be large or small. String theory requires ten dimensions and one extra dimension of space to work accurately.

3. It predicts a particle with speed greater than the speed of light named tachyons.

In 1984, the mathematical calculations of the equations gave its left-hand side equal to the right-hand side n=496. The string theory was alive again. It was concluded that the massless particle is actually describing gravity named as the graviton. Graviton particle carries gravity at the quantum level.

We have always been curious to unlock the secrets of the universe but one-way or the other we are unsatisfied with our researchers.

The string theory was able to explain the biggest question.

What was there before the big bang?

According to string theory, 11th dimension space is stretched in the form of a membrane or brane where the universe is attached. when two vibrating membranes collide or a membrane split into two parts leads to the big bang.

Large Hadron Collider is the experiment working on it.

a large hadron collider is a machine in which particles in opposite directions near the speed of light are made to collide and split into different elementary particles. If the amount of energy is less than the amount of energy before collision then we would be able to conclude that gravity fly off into higher dimensions due to its weak force of attraction.

What do you think……

Can string theory be theory of everything?

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WHY ARE WE 95% STUPID: Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Have you ever thought;

Why are the galaxies found in clusters?

Why are the galaxies so organised as they seemed to be?

If the speed of spinning galaxies is to faster to hold themselves, then why don’t the stars fly off into space?

Yellow portion indicates 5% normal matter,21% Dark Matter and 74% Dark Energy.

The major problem struck out when in the year 1932, Jan Oort detected that the calculated mass of the milky way galaxy was 10 times more than the mass of normal matter. The scientist then concluded that the circus master is nothing but gravity. Something is there which is more mysterious and in the form of the invisible matter because it posses mass and gravity. This invisible matter was termed as Dark Matter. It neither absorbs nor emits nor reflects light. Therefore, it can not be physically examined. It is a property of empty space but does empty spaces really empty?

If a table is kept in a dark empty room, it just that we are unable to see it but that does not mean the dark-room is empty. Similarly, in the case of dark matter consist of none baryonic material which doesn’t interact with normal matter at all.

We know it is but we don’t know what it is”

LUX- Large Underground Xeon and BOULBY Underground Laboratories are the famous experiments working on the dark matter, 1000 of meters below the earth surface in America.

Then how do we actually get to know about them?

By their powerful effects in the universe.

1. Uniform speed of stars:

A body moving in a circular path has a centrifugal force i.e body having the capacity to go tendential but it does not happen due to gravity which is counter-balancing it. This is the reason, stars do not fly off into space. It was assumed that the speed of stars in the outer edge of the galaxy might be less as compared to the stars at the inner edge around our massive black hole Sagittarius A star but they found something really shocking, the speed of stars at outer edge was same as compared to inner ones 250 km/sec. Hence concluded there is some invisible matter which is providing gravitational pull and named as dark matter.

2.Gravitational lensing:

Due to gravitational lensing, we are able to observe light from distant galaxies.

The dark matter outside the galaxy behaves as a lens and produce a powerful gravitational force, results in bending of light.

3.WMAP:

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

In 2001, WMAP spacecraft was operated to collect the microwave signals which were an echo of light left after the big bang and generated a map which shows largest to smallest variation in temperature.

Here blue region indicates low temperature whereas red region indicates high temperature. The low-temperature region leads to the formation of visible matter and empty spaces containing dark matter.

Three believes of the universe:

1. If the energy density of the universe is more than the critical density, in simple words if the amount of gravity in the universe is more then it will slow its expansion and will again squeeze into a single point named as big crunch.

2. If there isn’t much gravity. It will keep on expanding forever.

3. The universe will expand to definite shape and then stops and termed as big freeze.

In 1932, Edwin Hubble came up with the result that most of the galaxies are red shifted i.e moving away, relative to us with faster and faster speed every second.

This sounds like we know something! We Don’t”.

If everything in this universe has gravitational pull then how is this universe expanding?

There is some kind of energy in the empty space that making it accelerate to expansion against the wishes of gravity and termed as dark energy. Recently, a galaxy has been founded whose calculated mass is equal to the mass of visible matter. A galaxy with no dark matter –NGC1052-DF2.

We are unaware of 95% of the universe. Imagine someone asking you about your hometown where you are born and bought up and you don’t know about 95% things. I don’t think he will consider you as normal.

Dark matter is a crucial part of the universe.

“Without Dark matter, there would be no galaxies

Without galaxies, there would be no stars

Without stars, there would be no planets

Without Planets, there would be no humans”

CAPTIVATING AND HIDEOUS DEMONS: black holes

A black hole in the heart of every galaxy

Now, we know that black holes create and control galaxies. They are both captivating and horrifying. I think rather than getting afraid of them, we need to love them. Maybe one day they could open the hidden secrets of space.

It was first estimated by Sir Einstein in 1916. But there was something mysterious which even Einstein could not predict.

What will happen if we cross the event horizon? The point of no return, from where even light could not escape?

To understand the concept of a black hole, one needs to understand the formation of a star.

The main cause for the formation of a star is gravitational force of attraction. Hydrogen atoms get fused up and generate helium atom when they stuck together with much greater speed. A star would remain in a stable form until it has an active core.

Let me explain you how

A car will remain in a stable form until it has petrol. The moment it runs out of fuel, the car will now be in unstable form. When a star runs out of its fuel, gravitational forces again comes in the act, product of mass is a squeezed together into a single point of singularity which is infinitely dense and has zero volume.

You probably asking! Every star after collapsing becomes a black hole?

Well! No………

A star after collapsing become a neutron star, but if the mass of a neutron star exceeds its critical limit popularly know as Chandrashekar limit. The star will transform into a black hole. This is how a black hole is born. The small black holes are known as Stellar Black Holes, stellar because they are formed by collapsing of a star and large black holes are known as Supermassive Black Holes which are millions and billions time larger than our sun and formed by merging of two or more than two black holes.

We get to know about black hole due to dust and gasses or matter pulled inside it. Atoms gain energy and emit radiation which was observed by 12 most powerful radio telescopes calibrated at the frequency of 230 GHz. All the radio telescopes pointed towards our supermassive black hole neighbour Sagittarius A star which is 26,000 light years away.

When black hole absorbs matter, the matter starts to accelerate then what about light? Do speed of light increase after crossing the event horizon?

How is that possible? We know that speed of light is constant.

Yesss! Its speed does not change but the frequency does which means its colour will change. This is known as Redshift or Blueshift when it comes in contact with gravity. This is the answer to the most discussed question, what will happen if a person falls into a black hole. It’s just an assumption. I am not claiming anything.

In 1974 Stephen Hawking came up with a theory of Hawkings Radiation, according to which black holes emit radiation and eventually evaporate. All things in the visible universe obey the laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics stated that the entropy of an isolated system will either remain same or will increase gradually. So, the area of the event horizon will either remain same or increase. It is clear, that any black body which has an entropy will also have a certain mass and temperature as well. If a black body has a temperature, it will also radiate.

So, the question again arises that if a black hole has an entropy then how it is possible for a black hole to evaporate? If a black hole does not have a temperature then how radiation is emitted?

According to the quantum mechanical uncertainty principle, the rotating disc of a black hole generates a magnetic field and emit radiations. However, size of the black hole is inversely proportional to radiation emitted.

What secrets can we discover about the universe on the journey inside a black hole?

All advance physics is hidden inside a black hole.

MY CURIOSITY : time

Everyone in this world has a hunger to explore and delight knowledge

What is time?

Do time itself has a beginning?

Will it have an end?

Can we control time?

Can we control past and future?

How is it related to the universe?

Where is the end of the universe?

Why is universe infinite?

How it is possible that all the inventions we did are already mentioned in mythologies?

All the questions fascinate me the most and I am strongly willing to dedicate my life to these questions.

The star of my blog ‘time’.

Can you define time?

Well! No one can …..

The very basic concept we know is that the arrow of time is always pointing from present to future not from present to past.

Now the question here is why time is so conspicuous?

The aspect time was given consideration after the discovery of the fastest moving thing in the entire universe

Light

By Michelson Morley experiment, it was proved that light is constant for all frame of reference.

According to James Clerk Maxwell, light is an electromagnetic wave which has a constant speed in a vacuum, but according to general theory relativity by sir Einstein, everything in this universe is relative i.e moving with respect to each other.

Two contradictory statements, To understand these statements……

Suppose you are travelling in a train which has the speed near the speed of light and took a revolution of the earth in just one hour and then you are back to the station again.

Now the magic begins…….

It will be equal to 100 years on earth. In simple words, you have done a time travel. It’s a paradox.

Confused !!!! I know ……..

This was explained by sir Einstein’s general theory of relativity .we know that speed is equal to distance/time. therefore to maintain constancy of the speed of light, one factor has to give its sacrifice and this sacrifice was done by time. Its a fact that faster you are moving in space dimensions the slower you will move in time dimensions. Sir Einstein termed this as time dilation , So the people inside train will experience time to get slower and slower as compared to the people on earth…

Why time dilation?

Assume a space shuttle travelling 90% speed of light, it will gradually attract more mass which will result in an increase in acceleration. Mass is inversely proportion to time. A body is considered as mass when it is not in contact with gravity for example in space, but the moment it comes in contact with the gravity it will be considered as weight. It is not about size, it is about mass .this is the reason for time dilation in a black hole.

Some theories also suggest that if we exceed the speed of light, it is possible to travel back in time. If such thing happens all the upcoming events on the earth will also change.However, this is just a theory.Because after big-bang, when the time was created it is possible that universe will only expand with time.

Light is made of massless particles ‘photons’ so it is quite impossible to reach a speed of light. Hence, there is a probability that time machine can never be made.

The innocent guilt

Like everyone else, I also have a dream. I know many obstacles are waiting for me. Finally! Finally! The day arrived, when I started walking on the path of my dreams, I joined a university. I was happy It will give wings to my dream.

Just after completion of my first semester .everyone in the bus noticed me. now I was more silent! more quite! Don’t indulge in fun going around me. All I know was, I was missing someone badly. My eyes were moist. I was crazy to put myself through the emotions this caused.

Now you might be thinking who am I talking about?

What actually happened?

Just after joining the university, I started liking someone .his first impression on me was worst and he was very !very! rude. he was actually talking about some buffet and his trip to Thailand and I being confident told him I went to the US for a school trip .we spend a good time with each other. The crazy thing was that I had zero desire to actually date him.

I want to ask you .how will you feel if your crush says you that he likes you?

Well! Confused right! I was also confused, a few minutes later .it literally took a glance of half a second and I was gone, flying above rooftops .so bizarre. I know he wasn’t my type .we used to have long talks and I told no one about him. instead, I kept my memories of him hidden inside me like a ball of energy is wrapped for a keeping it safe.his every small detail, every nuance in facial expressions, every word he says was like a secret indulgence.

Until ! the worst day arrived in my life, that one pathetic joke between him and my friend which made them worst enemies. But the kind of relief for me was they both didn’t ignore me anyhow. everything again went back to normal.

Until! One more worst day arrived. when he messaged me that he had heard all the conversation between me and my friend. although, I was clueless, what the hell! I have done so wrong . I was waiting for him to answer .he didn’t reply .my eyes were moist . next morning when I saw him in the bus. I knew, couldn’t ignore the situation any longer.

I don’t know what will you judge it ‘my ego’. No! I will say it was my self-respect.

I felt heartbroken, although I was never indulged in a relationship. that moment came when his face fell apart, I knew that point was ready to move on with my life .there have been only once in my life that I was instantly attracted to someone like him.

Why the hell !!!!!!!

Why I always want him to be happy.

Why I always remember him and cry

why I always admired him

why I just keep on remembering things again and again which fill my eyes with never-ending tears , with a guilt which cannot be explained, with a pain which cannot be expressed.

Why the hell I gave him right to hurt me.

Why the hell!!!!!

A Story from my heart to yours❤