The world of physics is ruled by two leading theories, the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.
The general theory of relativity by Albert Einstein deals with gravity, a force produced by the space-time curve of celestial bodies where time follows a smooth and predictable path and is only valid at a big scale whereas quantum mechanics explains the behaviour of elementary particles at the quantum scale. Space-time curve and time follows a complex path which is fluctuating and jittery.
Let me tell you how…
According to Quantum mechanics, a particle can be present at different places at the same time.
Isn’t it astonishing!
If we apply quantum mechanics to celestial bodies, imagine having more than two suns, it will lead to total destruction of life. Also, we can not apply the general theory of relativity at the quantum scale because gravitational force cannot be explained at the microscopic level. Therefore, we need a unified theory. the theory of everything which could explain both general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.
The smallest known constituent of an ordinary matter is an atom, inside the atom, there are a nucleus and revolving electrons, inside the nucleus, they’re protons and neutrons and inside protons there exist quarks. Modern physics says quarks are the smallest particles of a matter.
Do quarks really are smallest known elementary particles?
Wait! Wait! Wait!
We left with a surprise
In 1968, Gabriel Veneziano found a 200 years old book with an aim to get equations of strong nuclear force, when he builds a structure using that information it came out to be a string rather than a spherically shaped particle. the string is a dancing filament of energy which vibrates in different patterns produced by different frequencies. If we would able to make a microscope to see the elementary particles than they would be in the form of strings.
Due to these predictions and anomalies, the string theory breaks down.
1. In 1973, John Schwartz working on a mathematical proof of string theory found that it is indicating towards a massless particle.
2. In 1990’s kaluza put a bold suggestion that there might be six extra dimensions which we do not experience in our day to day life as these dimensions could be large or small. String theory requires ten dimensions and one extra dimension of space to work accurately.
3. It predicts a particle with speed greater than the speed of light named tachyons.
In 1984, the mathematical calculations of the equations gave its left-hand side equal to the right-hand side n=496. The string theory was alive again. It was concluded that the massless particle is actually describing gravity named as the graviton. Graviton particle carries gravity at the quantum level.
We have always been curious to unlock the secrets of the universe but one-way or the other we are unsatisfied with our researchers.
The string theory was able to explain the biggest question.
What was there before the big bang?
According to string theory, 11th dimension space is stretched in the form of a membrane or brane where the universe is attached. when two vibrating membranes collide or a membrane split into two parts leads to the big bang.
Large Hadron Collider is the experiment working on it.
a large hadron collider is a machine in which particles in opposite directions near the speed of light are made to collide and split into different elementary particles. If the amount of energy is less than the amount of energy before collision then we would be able to conclude that gravity fly off into higher dimensions due to its weak force of attraction.
What do you think……
Can string theory be theory of everything?