The concept of absolute time was abolished after Einstein’s mind-bending realization that time is nothing more than an illusion. Past, present and future exist simultaneously. Our past is not gone and our future already exists.

What’s time?

Killing time?Wasting time?

Once upon a time?

The most common phrases of all the time but

What is time itself?

Einstein’s theory of relativity implies time has no significance without relativity or motion in space. Therefore he refers space-time. Cosmologists now believe they exist scattered snapshots of every moment that happened or will ever happen.

Thoughts of past and Imaginations of future are all in the mind creating an illusion of time.

OMG! What I did

OMG! What’s going to happen

Which ultimately pull us out of our consciousness. If State of consciousness is conscious then you might ask where’s the past or future. Where are they located? Imagine watching a movie thought it is already being filmed, you are just concentrating on what’s happening at that present moment. Your consciousness plays a major role. This is the most probable answer to the question

Why time passes so quickly while doing our favourite work.

Mind boggling fact of time slowing down under the effect of gravity as predicted by Einstein was experimentally proved when researchers compared the clocks of ISS and earth. Any observer gazing our universe from different reference points will experience past or future. In more simple words, observing light from alpha century which is 4.36 light years away which means light took 4.36 light years to reach us. we are actually looking into its past rather than its present.

Today’s profound reality is ‘arrow of time always moves in one direction thought we can move both forward and backward in space’.

Why is time irreversible?

According to laws of thermodynamics, disordered state i.e entropy of system will always increase with time.

Past can not be changed neither is the future but present can be…...

CRAZIEST CONCEPT: Quantum Entanglement

If we move down to billions of meters as compared to the size of an atom, where entirely new sets of rules are followed having a superposition. A state in which subatomic particles have half up spin and half down spin until it is measured.

In early 1980’s when Einstein-Podolsky-Nathan EPR paper was published, it gave birth to the trickiest crazy ridiculous concept of modern physics, Quantum Entanglement. In this phenomenon, two particle interact physically in such a way sharing all the information although if we separate them billions of light years away without any linking source, they will still show entanglement property. Seems they were talking. Einstein named it Spuckhafte Frewirkli / Spooky Action At a Distance. Total angular momentum has to be constant if one particle measured, show up spin then it is 100% sure other would show down spin.

Einstein was unsatisfied due to the reasons….

1. Entanglement allows the exchange of information faster than the speed of light which violates his theory of relativity.

2. No local cause required but according to Einstein everything in this universe is affected by local cause.

3. Quantum mechanics can not predict the sure outcome because we are unaware of its hidden information.

John Bell and John Clauses machine measured thousands of entangled particle and showed information exchange occurs simultaneously from miles away, proving Niels Bohr right. Locality is not permanent and entangled particles have the same properties. Light striking on one particle collapses its superposition state and measurement of one particle instantaneously effect other having randomness probabilities i.e co-related. Therefore, does not violates the theory of relativity. The scientists are trying to implement this phenomenon in the form of quantum computers, quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation.


where does mass originate from?

Mass is a resistance offered by a body, in simple words particle travelling with the speed of light is massless. The Standard Model Of Particle Physics depicts two types of particles. Fermions which are responsible for the formation of matter and bosons which carry fundamental forces at the quantum level. The equations of The Standard Model Of Particle Physics were solved when particles were considered to be massless. It was known that elementary particles such as electrons and quarks do possess mass. So, particle physicists then consider the mass of subatomic particles but the equations were now more asymmetric and complex to solve.

In 1964, Peter Higgs came up with his hypothetical framework of empty spaces containing a unified invisible field termed as Higgs field whose principle was based on Quantum field theory. According to it, empty spaces are not empty. Each subatomic particle has its own field unevenly distributed everywhere and if energy is supplied to a field it generates flicks due to its excitation state. These ripples are assumed as particle because of its negligible size. Similarly, Higgs field creates particles Higgs boson. In 2013 Peter Higgs was honoured with Nobel prize almost after 49 years of his discovery.

Elementary particle after entering Higgs field start interacting with it. The more particle will interact, the more mass will be gained whereas other will remain massless such as photons.

The extraordinary properties such as spinless particle, non-zero constant value universally have contrived Higgs Boson particle entirely different from other subatomic particles. Hence, Higgs boson is kept at the corner in The Standard Model Of Particle Physics. On 4 July 2012, CERN announced the confirmation of founding Higgs Boson particle in Large Hadron Collider when trillions of protons were made to collide billions of time in the blink of an eye with 99.9% of the speed of light. ATLAS and CMS measured reading and both showed the same result.

The god particle misconceptionly related to god. It was a title with no logic referred to a book by Leon Lenderman as an shortform of its original name The goddamm particle because this name was denied by his publisher but loved by media all over the world.

WEIRDER THAN WE COULD IMAGINE: Parallel Universe and Multiverse theory

Let’s explore something which is far more profound as it seems to be, where logic is the only way of guidance.

Scientist often says observable universe as there are many universes existing simultaneously. It’s not universe its multiverse. According to laws of thermodynamics, every system has its boundary as well as its surroundings. If we consider milky way galaxy as a system then every other gigantic galaxy would form its surrounding which ultimately covers the whole universe. Similarly, if we assume the universe as a system then there might exist multiverse forming its surrounding. This is a general idea behind multiverse.

What if I say somewhere in another universe there exist an exact duplicate of you, me and everything else. Many interactive worlds existing at the same time but with different dimensions, different situations and with different laws of physics. That’s what we call a parallel universe. Your decision decides in which universe you want to be and every other possibility which could have been a reality is perceptibility of another universe.

Today scientist regard 4 levels to predict multiverse.

Level 1

The shape of space-time- if the shape of space-time is flat and expanding then there is a strong possibility pointing towards multiverse but parallel universe are so far that light from them could never reach us. This is the reason we could never observe multiverse.

Level 2

Eternal Inflation- Universe is of bubble-shaped whenever two bubble collides big-bang arises. Inflation might never end, this process can go on forever.

Level 3

Quantum physics-subatomic particle such as an electron can be present at two different places at the same time and humans are also made of these atoms.

Level 4

Mathematical structure- describes different universe follows different laws of mathematics.

Other concepts such as dark energy and string theory also support the existence of parallel worlds but the theory which fascinates me the most is De-Ja-Vu theory.

Have you ever felt!

I have faced this type of circumstance earlier but actually, you never did scientist named it de-ja-vu.

Multiverse theory gave a solution to past time-travelling paradox. Imagine a person went to his past and killed himself then who came from future. He travelled to a parallel universe’s present, not in his past and the person is no more in his parallel word, however, his life didn’t get affected in his world.

The most famous thought experiment proving the existence of multiverse is particle configuration which says after certain possible rearrangements the original configuration will start repeating.

This hotly debated mysterious topic is neither accepted nor denied but loved worldwide as it permits another chance to improve your mistake.


Quasars are the most luminous thing generated by most darkest thing in the entire universe.

Differentiating between a quasar and bright star was really demanding until observed through a radio telescope. Quasars were more red-shifted and showed different spectrum as compared to a star. They are the most violent astronomical phenomenon and intense source of energy, generating high frequency electromagnetic radiation produced by supermassive black holes having active galactic nuclie.

When supermassive black holes start feeding up, large amount of matter, dust and gasses can not be sollowed at same time. Therefore, matter starts rotating around supermassive black hole forming an accretion disk which fabricates friction between them and temperature rises to millions of degrees, huge jects of energy is released vertically shines whole galaxy.

Black hole sucks gas inside and quasar propel it outside.

Quasars are more luminous than thousands of galaxies all together but with time, it loses its luminosity. They were first discovered in 1960 ,Object Number 273 in the brand new 3rd Cambridge Radio Catalog -3C273. The closest quasar observed IC2497 is 780 million light years away whereas the most distant quasar ULASJ1120+0641 is 13 billion light years away.

Quasars may again come into existence after 3-5 billion light years when when Andromeda galaxy collides with milky way galaxy and their supermassive black holes merge together.

You might be thinking!

What is the difference between quasars and hawking radiation ?

Well! Quasar is generated by a feeding supermassive black holes and hawking radiations is totally dependent on mass of a black hole( inversly proportional to mass). Hence hawkings radiation exhibited by supermassive black holes are minute.

Quasars are the most distant and ancient blinding source of light.

EINSTEIN- ROSEN BRIDGE:- contracting huge distances into few meters

With the help of most powerful and efficient telescope of the 21st century, the Hubble space telescope pointed out many Earth-like planets which are billions of light-years away. Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity says a body having a mass cannot travel with the speed of light as it requires an infinite amount of energy.

Then why are scientist wasting their time in searching earth-like planets which are impossible to reach?

We have mathematical equations and mathematical proof of these equations would be technology for the upcoming generations. In 1935, Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen theoretically proved that wormholes could exist either naturally or artificially by highly advanced intelligent species.

Science-fiction shows are full of this beautiful towering system of the wormhole. Wormholes are the shortcuts connecting two space-time at two different places and two different time with a tunnel allowing things to travel through them faster than the speed of light.

If I hold an A4 size paper in my hand marking two points near its ends and ask you its shortest distance. Probably your answer would be a straight line. No! The shortest distance will be joining of that two points when I fold that paper.

Wormholes would open doors for travelling faster than the speed of light and travelling to the parallel universe but before that scientist have to face it’s danger zones. According to quantum foam hypothesis,wormholes could exist naturally and get vanished own their own just like virtual particles which are highly unstable and unsafe. What will happen if you touch a soap bubble? It will pop!

Imagine, sudden shaking of your table or desk!

You need something to stabilize it. That’s what exotic matter does. Exotic matter is completely opposite to ordinary matter consisting of negative energy and pressure with an anti-gravitational force. At the time of big bang, negative energy would also have been created balancing positive energy but we neither know its physical appearance nor the place where we could find it. Eric Davis in his lab Hathaway consulting services in Toronto is working on creating exotic matter which could expand the mouth of the wormhole. Naturally occurring stabilized wormhole is already existing out there, black holes are connected with white holes forming a wormhole. A black hole sucks matter inside due to its positive energy and extreme gravitational force whereas while hole would split matter out due to its negative energy and anti-gravitational force.

A magnetic wormhole which is totally different from space-time wormhole was created in Autonomous University of Barcelona in 2015, through which magnetic waves can travel having extra special dimensions.


The world of physics is ruled by two leading theories, the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

The general theory of relativity by Albert Einstein deals with gravity, a force produced by the space-time curve of celestial bodies where time follows a smooth and predictable path and is only valid at a big scale whereas quantum mechanics explains the behaviour of elementary particles at the quantum scale. Space-time curve and time follows a complex path which is fluctuating and jittery.

Let me tell you how…

According to Quantum mechanics, a particle can be present at different places at the same time.

Isn’t it astonishing!

If we apply quantum mechanics to celestial bodies, imagine having more than two suns, it will lead to total destruction of life. Also, we can not apply the general theory of relativity at the quantum scale because gravitational force cannot be explained at the microscopic level. Therefore, we need a unified theory. the theory of everything which could explain both general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

The smallest known constituent of an ordinary matter is an atom, inside the atom, there are a nucleus and revolving electrons, inside the nucleus, they’re protons and neutrons and inside protons there exist quarks. Modern physics says quarks are the smallest particles of a matter.

Do quarks really are smallest known elementary particles?

Wait! Wait! Wait!

We left with a surprise

In 1968, Gabriel Veneziano found a 200 years old book with an aim to get equations of strong nuclear force, when he builds a structure using that information it came out to be a string rather than a spherically shaped particle. the string is a dancing filament of energy which vibrates in different patterns produced by different frequencies. If we would able to make a microscope to see the elementary particles than they would be in the form of strings.

Due to these predictions and anomalies, the string theory breaks down.

1. In 1973, John Schwartz working on a mathematical proof of string theory found that it is indicating towards a massless particle.

2. In 1990’s kaluza put a bold suggestion that there might be six extra dimensions which we do not experience in our day to day life as these dimensions could be large or small. String theory requires ten dimensions and one extra dimension of space to work accurately.

3. It predicts a particle with speed greater than the speed of light named tachyons.

In 1984, the mathematical calculations of the equations gave its left-hand side equal to the right-hand side n=496. The string theory was alive again. It was concluded that the massless particle is actually describing gravity named as the graviton. Graviton particle carries gravity at the quantum level.

We have always been curious to unlock the secrets of the universe but one-way or the other we are unsatisfied with our researchers.

The string theory was able to explain the biggest question.

What was there before the big bang?

According to string theory, 11th dimension space is stretched in the form of a membrane or brane where the universe is attached. when two vibrating membranes collide or a membrane split into two parts leads to the big bang.

Large Hadron Collider is the experiment working on it.

a large hadron collider is a machine in which particles in opposite directions near the speed of light are made to collide and split into different elementary particles. If the amount of energy is less than the amount of energy before collision then we would be able to conclude that gravity fly off into higher dimensions due to its weak force of attraction.

What do you think……

Can string theory be theory of everything?

WHY ARE WE 95% STUPID: Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Have you ever thought;

Why are the galaxies found in clusters?

Why are the galaxies so organised as they seemed to be?

If the speed of spinning galaxies is to faster to hold themselves, then why don’t the stars fly off into space?

Yellow portion indicates 5% normal matter,21% Dark Matter and 74% Dark Energy.

The major problem struck out when in the year 1932, Jan Oort calculated mass of the milky way galaxy was 10 times more than the mass of normal matter. The scientist then concluded that the circus master is nothing but gravity. Something is there which is more mysterious and in the form of the invisible matter because it posses mass and gravity. This invisible matter was termed as Dark Matter. It neither absorbs nor emits nor reflects light. Therefore, it can not be physically examined. It is a property of empty space but does empty spaces really empty?

If a table is kept in a dark empty room, it just that we are unable to see it but that does not mean the dark-room is empty. Similarly, in the case of dark matter consist of none baryonic material which doesn’t interact with normal matter at all.

We know it is but we don’t know what it is”

LUX- Large Underground Xeon and BOULBY Underground Laboratories are the famous experiments working on the dark matter, 1000 of meters below the earth surface in America.

Then how do we actually get to know about them?

By their powerful effects in the universe.

1. Uniform speed of stars:

A body moving in a circular path has a centrifugal force i.e body having the capacity to go tendential but it does not happen due to gravity which is counter-balancing it. This is the reason, stars do not fly off into space. It was assumed that the speed of stars in the outer edge of the galaxy might be less as compared to the stars at the inner edge around our massive black hole Sagittarius A star but they found something really shocking, the speed of stars at outer edge was same as compared to inner ones 250 km/sec. Hence concluded there is some invisible matter which is providing gravitational pull and named as dark matter.

2.Gravitational lensing:

Due to gravitational lensing, we are able to observe light from distant galaxies.

The dark matter outside the galaxy behaves as a lens and produce a powerful gravitational force, results in bending of light.


Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

In 2001, WMAP spacecraft was operated to collect the microwave signals which were an echo of light left after the big bang and generated a map which shows largest to smallest variation in temperature.

Here blue region indicates low temperature whereas red region indicates high temperature. The low-temperature region leads to the formation of visible matter and empty spaces containing dark matter.

Three believes of the universe:

1. If the energy density of the universe is more than the critical density, in simple words if the amount of gravity in the universe is more then it will slow its expansion and will again squeeze into a single point named as big crunch.

2. If there isn’t much gravity. It will keep on expanding forever.

3. The universe will expand to definite shape and then stops and termed as big freeze.

In 1932, Edwin Hubble came up with the result that most of the galaxies are red shifted i.e moving away, relative to us with faster and faster speed every second.

This sounds like we know something! We Don’t”.

If everything in this universe has gravitational pull then how is this universe expanding?

There is some kind of energy in the empty space that making it accelerate to expansion against the wishes of gravity and termed as dark energy. Recently, a galaxy has been founded whose calculated mass is equal to the mass of visible matter. A galaxy with no dark matter –NGC1052-DF2.

We are unaware of 95% of the universe. Imagine someone asking you about your hometown where you are born and bought up and you don’t know about 95% things. I don’t think he will consider you as normal.

Dark matter is a crucial part of the universe.

“Without Dark matter, there would be no galaxies

Without galaxies, there would be no stars

Without stars, there would be no planets

Without Planets, there would be no humans”


A black hole in the heart of every galaxy

Now, we know that black holes create and control galaxies. They are both captivating and horrifying. I think rather than getting afraid of them, we need to love them. Maybe one day they could open the hidden secrets of space.

It was first estimated by Sir Einstein in 1916. But there was something mysterious which even Einstein could not predict.

What will happen if we cross the event horizon? The point of no return, from where even light could not escape?

To understand the concept of a black hole, one needs to understand the formation of a star.

The main cause for the formation of a star is gravitational force of attraction. Hydrogen atoms get fused up and generate helium atom when they stuck together with much greater speed. A star would remain in a stable form until it has an active core.

Let me explain you how

A car will remain in a stable form until it has petrol. The moment it runs out of fuel, the car will now be in unstable form. When a star runs out of its fuel, gravitational forces again comes in the act, product of mass is a squeezed together into a single point of singularity which is infinitely dense and has zero volume.

You probably asking! Every star after collapsing becomes a black hole?

Well! No………

A star after collapsing become a neutron star, but if the mass of a neutron star exceeds its critical limit popularly know as Chandrashekar limit. The star will transform into a black hole. This is how a black hole is born. The small black holes are known as Stellar Black Holes, stellar because they are formed by collapsing of a star and large black holes are known as Supermassive Black Holes which are millions and billions time larger than our sun and formed by merging of two or more than two black holes.

We get to know about black hole due to dust and gasses or matter pulled inside it. Atoms gain energy and emit radiation which was observed by 12 most powerful radio telescopes calibrated at the frequency of 230 GHz. All the radio telescopes pointed towards our supermassive black hole neighbour Sagittarius A star which is 26,000 light years away.

When black hole absorbs matter, the matter starts to accelerate then what about light? Do speed of light increase after crossing the event horizon?

How is that possible? We know that speed of light is constant.

Yesss! Its speed does not change but the frequency does which means its colour will change. This is known as Redshift or Blueshift when it comes in contact with gravity. This is the answer to the most discussed question, what will happen if a person falls into a black hole. It’s just an assumption. I am not claiming anything.

In 1974 Stephen Hawking came up with a theory of Hawkings Radiation, according to which black holes emit radiation and eventually evaporate. All things in the visible universe obey the laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics stated that the entropy of an isolated system will either remain same or will increase gradually. So, the area of the event horizon will either remain same or increase. It is clear, that any black body which has an entropy will also have a certain mass and temperature as well. If a black body has a temperature, it will also radiate.

So, the question again arises that if a black hole has an entropy then how it is possible for a black hole to evaporate? If a black hole does not have a temperature then how radiation is emitted?

According to the quantum mechanical uncertainty principle, the rotating disc of a black hole generates a magnetic field and emit radiations. However, size of the black hole is inversely proportional to radiation emitted.

What secrets can we discover about the universe on the journey inside a black hole?

All advance physics is hidden inside a black hole.


Everyone in this world has a hunger to explore and delight knowledge

What is time?

Do time itself has a beginning?

Will it have an end?

Can we control time?

Can we control past and future?

How is it related to the universe?

Where is the end of the universe?

Why is universe infinite?

How it is possible that all the inventions we did are already mentioned in mythologies?

All the questions fascinate me the most and I am strongly willing to dedicate my life to these questions.

The star of my blog ‘time’.

Can you define time?

Well! No one can …..

The very basic concept we know is that the arrow of time is always pointing from present to future not from present to past.

Now the question here is why time is so conspicuous?

The aspect time was given consideration after the discovery of the fastest moving thing in the entire universe


By Michelson Morley experiment, it was proved that light is constant for all frame of reference.

According to James Clerk Maxwell, light is an electromagnetic wave which has a constant speed in a vacuum, but according to general theory relativity by sir Einstein, everything in this universe is relative i.e moving with respect to each other.

Two contradictory statements, To understand these statements……

Suppose you are travelling in a train which has the speed near the speed of light and took a revolution of the earth in just one hour and then you are back to the station again.

Now the magic begins…….

It will be equal to 100 years on earth. In simple words, you have done a time travel. It’s a paradox.

Confused !!!! I know ……..

This was explained by sir Einstein’s general theory of relativity .we know that speed is equal to distance/time. therefore to maintain constancy of the speed of light, one factor has to give its sacrifice and this sacrifice was done by time. Its a fact that faster you are moving in space dimensions the slower you will move in time dimensions. Sir Einstein termed this as time dilation , So the people inside train will experience time to get slower and slower as compared to the people on earth…

Why time dilation?

Assume a space shuttle travelling 90% speed of light, it will gradually attract more mass which will result in an increase in acceleration. Mass is inversely proportion to time. A body is considered as mass when it is not in contact with gravity for example in space, but the moment it comes in contact with the gravity it will be considered as weight. It is not about size, it is about mass .this is the reason for time dilation in a black hole.

Some theories also suggest that if we exceed the speed of light, it is possible to travel back in time. If such thing happens all the upcoming events on the earth will also change.However, this is just a theory.Because after big-bang, when the time was created it is possible that universe will only expand with time.

Light is made of massless particles ‘photons’ so it is quite impossible to reach a speed of light. Hence, there is a probability that time machine can never be made.