BEYOND THE SPEED OF LIGHT: Tachyons

In 1962, three Indians

ECG Sudarshan

OMP Bilaniuk

VK Deshpande

Came up with their theoretical framework ‘meta particle’. A hypothetical particle travelling beyond the speed of light. In 1967, Gerald Feinberg published a reach-paper, named ‘tachyon particle’.

The mathematical and theoretical existence of tachyons breaks causality principle, which says cause will always be ahead of the effect.

Weird!

Let me explain to you how

A glass fell down and broke. Because a glass fell down is a cause and broke is the effect.

Many of us have a misconception that Einstein’s theory of relativity restricts speed limit i.e nothing can exceed the speed of light instead theory predicts, it’s impossible for a body having mass to travel faster than the speed of light as it requires infinite amount of energy with a Technicality, if a body travels lower than the speed of light it will remain travelling lower than that and if traveling faster then speed of light then it will remain travelling faster than that

but there is no observable evidence till now. Therefore, tachyons would not violate the theory of relativity and would possess properties such as

Relativistic length, mass and lifespan would be imaginary

If V>C assuming √-1=i for the cancellation rest mass should be imaginary

Infinite amount of energy is required to accelerate a particle with mass but in contrary, tachyons would lose energy and speed would gradually increase. At the time of energy=0, the speed would be infinite. Moreover, On supplying energy their speed would slow down since tachyons posses negative energy.

The tachyonic Antitelphonic device would come into existence through it we could easily send messages to our past. Although this device would allow you to communicate faster than the speed of light but time would also play its role, it would gradually move backwards. Suppose you send a message ‘how are you’ to your friend on another planet which is 10,000 light years away from earth. So, with the help tachyonicnic device, message travelled faster than the speed of light and because time reversed. He received your message before you have actually sent it. Hence, you would get the reply ‘I am fine’ before you send ‘how are you’. This would lead to past time-traveling paradoxes.

Bosonic string theory’s mathematical equations also predict the existence of fundamentally unstable particle tachyon. CERN in September 2011 announced that they have found tau neutrino travelling faster than the speed of light which was then concluded to be an error in calculations due to defect in fibre optic.

TACTICALLY POSSIBLE: White hole

You can not fall into white hole!

You can fall from white hole!

They are unrealistic, hypothetical, imaginative assumption depicted in mathematical equations. The mathematical equation can have two solutions 2^2=4 and (-2)^2=4. Both black holes and white holes are the valid solutions of general theory of relativity. Igor Novikov was the first to put forward the hypothesis of white hole in 1964 termed as anti-black holes which miscellaneously eject matter and light outwards.

Hawking’s radiation revealed black holes emit radiation and ultimately get evaporate. Therefore the information gone inside black hole is lost forever. According to laws of physics, matter can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be switched into another form. Some theories suggested black holes joined with white hole through wormhole. Hence, information sucked by feeding black hole is exhaled by white hole into an alternate universe in another dimension faster than the speed of light while other theories prefer black holes end their lifespan by transforming into white hole when they cannot shrink any more under their own gravitational pull experiencing quantum bounce, a pressure from outside region and eventually blast.

Cosmologist and physicist associate big bang as white hole outburst. White holes are impossible to exist due to violation of universal law- Second law of thermodynamics. The entropy of an isolated system would either remain same or will increase but never decrease.

On June 14, 2006, a gamma-ray burst was detected by Nasa’s satellite swift GRB06014 lasted for 102 seconds. It was considered as supernova outbreak but none of its properties matched with it. It’s properties shockingly matched with little-known knowledge of white hole. It was the strongest evidence ever noticed.

We should not forget black holes were once theoretical. If black holes have existence then……..

why not white holes?

THE ILLUSION OF TIME

The concept of absolute time was abolished after Einstein’s mind-bending realization that time is nothing more than an illusion. Past, present and future exist simultaneously. Our past is not gone and our future already exists.

What’s time?

Killing time?Wasting time?

Once upon a time?

The most common phrases of all the time but

What is time itself?

Einstein’s theory of relativity implies time has no significance without relativity or motion in space. Therefore he refers space-time. Cosmologists now believe they exist scattered snapshots of every moment that happened or will ever happen.

Thoughts of past and Imaginations of future are all in the mind creating an illusion of time.

OMG! What I did

OMG! What’s going to happen

Which ultimately pull us out of our consciousness. If State of consciousness is conscious then you might ask where’s the past or future. Where are they located? Imagine watching a movie thought it is already being filmed, you are just concentrating on what’s happening at that present moment. Your consciousness plays a major role. This is the most probable answer to the question

Why time passes so quickly while doing our favourite work.

Mind boggling fact of time slowing down under the effect of gravity as predicted by Einstein was experimentally proved when researchers compared the clocks of ISS and earth. Any observer gazing our universe from different reference points will experience past or future. In more simple words, observing light from alpha century which is 4.36 light years away which means light took 4.36 light years to reach us. we are actually looking into its past rather than its present.

Today’s profound reality is ‘arrow of time always moves in one direction thought we can move both forward and backward in space’.

Why is time irreversible?

According to laws of thermodynamics, disordered state i.e entropy of system will always increase with time.

Past can not be changed neither is the future but present can be…...

CRAZIEST CONCEPT: Quantum Entanglement

If we move down to billions of meters as compared to the size of an atom, where entirely new sets of rules are followed having a superposition. A state in which subatomic particles have half up spin and half down spin until it is measured.

In early 1980’s when Einstein-Podolsky-Nathan EPR paper was published, it gave birth to the trickiest crazy ridiculous concept of modern physics, Quantum Entanglement. In this phenomenon, two particle interact physically in such a way sharing all the information although if we separate them billions of light years away without any linking source, they will still show entanglement property. Seems they were talking. Einstein named it Spuckhafte Frewirkli / Spooky Action At a Distance. Total angular momentum has to be constant if one particle measured, show up spin then it is 100% sure other would show down spin.

Einstein was unsatisfied due to the reasons….

1. Entanglement allows the exchange of information faster than the speed of light which violates his theory of relativity.

2. No local cause required but according to Einstein everything in this universe is affected by local cause.

3. Quantum mechanics can not predict the sure outcome because we are unaware of its hidden information.

John Bell and John Clauses machine measured thousands of entangled particle and showed information exchange occurs simultaneously from miles away, proving Niels Bohr right. Locality is not permanent and entangled particles have the same properties. Light striking on one particle collapses its superposition state and measurement of one particle instantaneously effect other having randomness probabilities i.e co-related. Therefore, does not violates the theory of relativity. The scientists are trying to implement this phenomenon in the form of quantum computers, quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation.

HYPOTHETICAL FRAMEWORK TO SCIENTIFIC FACT: The god particle

where does mass originate from?

Mass is a resistance offered by a body, in simple words particle travelling with the speed of light is massless. The Standard Model Of Particle Physics depicts two types of particles. Fermions which are responsible for the formation of matter and bosons which carry fundamental forces at the quantum level. The equations of The Standard Model Of Particle Physics were solved when particles were considered to be massless. It was known that elementary particles such as electrons and quarks do possess mass. So, particle physicists then consider the mass of subatomic particles but the equations were now more asymmetric and complex to solve.

In 1964, Peter Higgs came up with his hypothetical framework of empty spaces containing a unified invisible field termed as Higgs field whose principle was based on Quantum field theory. According to it, empty spaces are not empty. Each subatomic particle has its own field unevenly distributed everywhere and if energy is supplied to a field it generates flicks due to its excitation state. These ripples are assumed as particle because of its negligible size. Similarly, Higgs field creates particles Higgs boson. In 2013 Peter Higgs was honoured with Nobel prize almost after 49 years of his discovery.

Elementary particle after entering Higgs field start interacting with it. The more particle will interact, the more mass will be gained whereas other will remain massless such as photons.

The extraordinary properties such as spinless particle, non-zero constant value universally have contrived Higgs Boson particle entirely different from other subatomic particles. Hence, Higgs boson is kept at the corner in The Standard Model Of Particle Physics. On 4 July 2012, CERN announced the confirmation of founding Higgs Boson particle in Large Hadron Collider when trillions of protons were made to collide billions of time in the blink of an eye with 99.9% of the speed of light. ATLAS and CMS measured reading and both showed the same result.

The god particle misconceptionly related to god. It was a title with no logic referred to a book by Leon Lenderman as an shortform of its original name The goddamm particle because this name was denied by his publisher but loved by media all over the world.

WEIRDER THAN WE COULD IMAGINE: Parallel Universe and Multiverse theory

Let’s explore something which is far more profound as it seems to be, where logic is the only way of guidance.

Scientist often says observable universe as there are many universes existing simultaneously. It’s not universe its multiverse. According to laws of thermodynamics, every system has its boundary as well as its surroundings. If we consider milky way galaxy as a system then every other gigantic galaxy would form its surrounding which ultimately covers the whole universe. Similarly, if we assume the universe as a system then there might exist multiverse forming its surrounding. This is a general idea behind multiverse.

What if I say somewhere in another universe there exist an exact duplicate of you, me and everything else. Many interactive worlds existing at the same time but with different dimensions, different situations and with different laws of physics. That’s what we call a parallel universe. Your decision decides in which universe you want to be and every other possibility which could have been a reality is perceptibility of another universe.

Today scientist regard 4 levels to predict multiverse.

Level 1

The shape of space-time- if the shape of space-time is flat and expanding then there is a strong possibility pointing towards multiverse but parallel universe are so far that light from them could never reach us. This is the reason we could never observe multiverse.

Level 2

Eternal Inflation- Universe is of bubble-shaped whenever two bubble collides big-bang arises. Inflation might never end, this process can go on forever.

Level 3

Quantum physics-subatomic particle such as an electron can be present at two different places at the same time and humans are also made of these atoms.

Level 4

Mathematical structure- describes different universe follows different laws of mathematics.

Other concepts such as dark energy and string theory also support the existence of parallel worlds but the theory which fascinates me the most is De-Ja-Vu theory.

Have you ever felt!

I have faced this type of circumstance earlier but actually, you never did scientist named it de-ja-vu.

Multiverse theory gave a solution to past time-travelling paradox. Imagine a person went to his past and killed himself then who came from future. He travelled to a parallel universe’s present, not in his past and the person is no more in his parallel word, however, his life didn’t get affected in his world.

The most famous thought experiment proving the existence of multiverse is particle configuration which says after certain possible rearrangements the original configuration will start repeating.

This hotly debated mysterious topic is neither accepted nor denied but loved worldwide as it permits another chance to improve your mistake.

QUASI-STELLAR RADIO SOURCES:- quasars

Quasars are the most luminous thing generated by most darkest thing in the entire universe.

Differentiating between a quasar and bright star was really demanding until observed through a radio telescope. Quasars were more red-shifted and showed different spectrum as compared to a star. They are the most violent astronomical phenomenon and intense source of energy, generating high frequency electromagnetic radiation produced by supermassive black holes having active galactic nuclie.

When supermassive black holes start feeding up, large amount of matter, dust and gasses can not be sollowed at same time. Therefore, matter starts rotating around supermassive black hole forming an accretion disk which fabricates friction between them and temperature rises to millions of degrees, huge jects of energy is released vertically shines whole galaxy.

Black hole sucks gas inside and quasar propel it outside.

Quasars are more luminous than thousands of galaxies all together but with time, it loses its luminosity. They were first discovered in 1960 ,Object Number 273 in the brand new 3rd Cambridge Radio Catalog -3C273. The closest quasar observed IC2497 is 780 million light years away whereas the most distant quasar ULASJ1120+0641 is 13 billion light years away.

Quasars may again come into existence after 3-5 billion light years when when Andromeda galaxy collides with milky way galaxy and their supermassive black holes merge together.

You might be thinking!

What is the difference between quasars and hawking radiation ?

Well! Quasar is generated by a feeding supermassive black holes and hawking radiations is totally dependent on mass of a black hole( inversly proportional to mass). Hence hawkings radiation exhibited by supermassive black holes are minute.

Quasars are the most distant and ancient blinding source of light.