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Every spectacular shining star as a hub of nuclear reactors has a specific lifespan, forming helium from hydrogen and then to heavier elements carbon, silicon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. Core temperature gradually increases transforming star into red giant. Rising amount of iron eventually stops the nuclear fusion resulting in the rapid collapse of the core under its own gravitational pull producing shock waves with a massive explosion called supernova, creating nebula which contains heavier elements, ions and stardust clouds. Within every 50 years, a supernova explosion occurs in milky way galaxy.

Cosmologist hunt for supernova by clues left behind through X-rays, gamma rays, radio waves for analysing its chemical composition, temperature, pressure, density and expansion rate. Chinese ancient text first catalogued supernova RCW86 in AD185 as a guest star for eight months and was visible during daytime. Cassiopeia 11,000 light years away, Crab Nebula 6,100 light years away are supernova explosions but farthest explosion observed was SN1987A 160,000 light years away whereas nearest red giant Betelgeuse 640 light years away has chances of being a supernova explosion anytime. There are two types of supernova. Type 1 supernova, have uniform size and releases no hydrogen. Type 2 supernova, releases a large amount of hydrogen and has gigantic size.

According to Chandrashekar limit, after the explosion star with mass 1.3 times mass of sun turns out to be white dwarfs. Star between 1.3-3 times mass of sun ends up as neutron star. Star more than 3 times mass of sun emanate into black holes.

Dense neutron star was first discovered by James Chadwick, ranging from 20-25 km in diameter. Immense gravity combines electron and protons together leaving neutrons behind.

1 teaspoon of neutron star= 100 million tons.

A neutron star is classified into pulsars and magnetars.

Pulsars, rotating neutron stars ejecting beams of electromagnetic radiation from its poles whereas magnetars are rotating neutron stars with extremely influential magnetic field 100 million to 1 quadrillion times stronger than earth. Fritz Zwicky and Walter Baadle were the first to prose this idea. PSRJ1748-2446ad, swiftly spinning pulsar 716 times per second.

REVOLUTIONARY IDEA: gravitational waves

The groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves can open the whole new domain of cosmology

In 1915 Abert Einstein published a paper on the general theory of relativity, describes gravity as curves in the fabric of space-time by massive bodies rather than a force. The mathematical equations of the general theory of relativity predicted the existence of gravitational waves i.e formation of ripples due to distortion in the space-time fabric by the most violent astronomical phenomena such as the collision of two neutron stars, merging of two black holes, the explosion of a supernova etc.

In 1974, two astronomers from Arecibo Radio Observatory in Puerto Rico observed binary pulsars orbiting each other and getting closer. Scientists were unable to examine it practically until 2015. In morning 3:50 am on September 14, 2015 LASER INTERFEROMETER GRAVITATIONAL WAVE OBSERVATORY LIGO identified waves whose characteristics were similar to gravitation waves i.e produced by accelerating the mass, travel with the speed of light, having weak interaction and cannot be absorbed. It was produced by the collision of two black holes 1.3 million light-years away.

After 100 years of Einstein’s prediction, the significance of gravitational waves was again alive unlocking deep secrets. Annihilation after big bang would have created ripples of gravitational waves carrying information.

LIGO LASER INTERFEROMETER GRAVITATIONAL WAVE OBSERVATORY:- central building shoots a laser beam and split it perpendicularly by beam splitter in L shaped tubes 4 km long and has mirrors on both the ends. The beam of light then strikes both the mirrors resulting in destructive interference due to the cancellation of their peak alignment but distortion in space-time leads to stretching and squeezing of arms until gravitational waves fully pass the earth. This sensitive equipment can detect a gravitational wave of 1/1000 width of a proton.

In 2017, three physics Rainer Weiss, Barry C.Barish and Kip throne were honoured with Nobel prize for their contribution in LIGO project. LIGO is located in Hanford and Livingston at the distance of 3,002 km to avoid abstraction of local noise.


“Some extraordinary predictions radically alter our perspective of analysing things in a better way.”

Paul Dirac predicted the existence of antimatter with his theory of relativistic quantum mechanics combining equation of motion of electrons and wave function in 1928. Just like x^2= 9 having two solutions 3,-3. Surprisingly, normal matter’s birth twin antimatter look, feel similar to it, having same properties and behaviour towards gravity but with opposite charge.

During big bang equal amount of matter and antimatter would have been formed but their collision leads to annihilation. However, matter somehow managed to survive. In 1932, Carl Anderson confirmed the existence of antimatter with his experiment of passing cosmic particles through a cloud chamber filled with water vapours surrounded by an electromagnet resulting in ionising particles moving in circular trajectories and took a photograph.

The photograph showed a particle with the same mass as an electron moving in the wrong direction and termed it position. Anderson’s evidence of positron indicated antimatter to be taken seriously in the matter dominated universe. Many antimatter particles such as Antiquark, Antineutrino, Antileptons, Antihydrogen atoms have already been discovered.

In 2011, CERN launched Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer aiming to detect antimatter in cosmic rays. It spotted a boom of antimatter near the centre of our galaxy. In 2016, it created 309 antihydrogen atoms which were held for 17 minutes. Moreover, CERN has successfully made 10 nanograms of antimatter which could glow a light bulb for 4 hours.

90 trillion joule energy is required to create 1 gram of antimatter costing around 62.5 billion dollar. 1 gram of antimatter has potential to blast equal to 100 nuclear booms exploded together. It is used in Positron Emission Tomography or PET scan and can also be incredibly used as 100% efficient fuel in interstellar space missions.


Is universe infinite?


Does it have an end?


What lies beyond it?

Exploring universe……..

From our home planet earth to moon at a distance to 3,84,400 km. Next, to mars distance 22.5 crore km then crossing our solar system having a diameter of 9.09 billion km. Moving ahead to NASA’s satellite Voyager 1 beyond our solar system at 18.8 billion km. Next, stepping out of our milky way galaxy which is 1,00,000 light years wider moving with the speed of 828,000 km/hr. Lightyear refers to the distance travelled by light in one year.

1 light year= 9460730472580.8 km speed of light= 299,792,458 km/s

Distance sucks!

I know ………..

Our galactic neighbour, Triangulum, Andromeda and various dwarf galaxies NGC 6822, LEO 1, LMC etc forms a local group of galaxy inside a diameter of 10 million light years. These local group of galaxies collectively known as Virgo supercluster spread across the region of 100 million light years includes laniakea supercluster where our home galaxy is located, MOF301 supercluster etc.

Precisely, the age of universe is 13.82 billion light years but actual observed universe is 93 billion light-years wider. Space is stretching itself faster than the speed of light.

Alan Guth proposed an idea of inflation i.e energy in vacuum forms virtual particles, suddenly jump to higher energy level resulting in space-time expansion. By the time photons from distant galaxy would reach us, space-time would have been expanded. Therefore, no laws of physics are violated, no speed limit is disturbed and no paradoxes are created. All matter and space inside the region of 93 billion light years diameter is known as observable universe

Our complete address

Laniakea supercluster Milkyway galaxy Orion arm Earth

THE BEGINNING: The big bang theory

The Big bang theory itself is the outcome of thousands of brilliant minds put all together in astronomy and cosmology cautiously for

exploring the origin of our universe.

Let’s move back in time.

13.82 billion years ago, what was there?

A point of singularity, extraordinary small and hot where no laws of physics were applied, the time has no existence, all four fundamental forces exist forming a unified force called super force suddenly exploded because of no reason.

”something came from nothing”

In less than one second, gravity split off from the super force. Three minutes later, the temperature dropped to 10 billion degrees of Fahrenheit, an appropriate temperature for the formation of atoms to take place. Lighter element, hydrogen came into existence.

After 380,000 years, light travelled through the darkness. 4 billion years later, stars started shaping due to the presence of heavier elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon etc. At the age of 13.7 billion years, the sky filled with stars and galaxies.

Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold, Fred Hoyle including Einstein proposed a steady-state model of universe i.e universe is static, having no beginning and no end. This process of creation and destruction is infinite. this idea challenged big bang theory but was prohibited when Edwin Hubble in 1920’s concluded that most of the galaxies are redshifted i.e moving away from us.

In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson build a radio receiver which accidentally recorded echo or aftershock noise of big bang docking from everywhere and every corner of the universe. This was experimentally proved by NASA’S Wilkison microwave Anisotropy probe on 3 June 2001.

In February 2003, Cosmic microwave background provided a baby picture of our universe

Some of the major anomalies with the big bang theory were the unanswerable questions

Is there something out of our universe?

What happened at the point of singularity?

What’s the exact shape of our universe?

How is space stretching itself faster than the speed of light?

What was the reason behind big bang explosion?

Many alternate theories exist claming answer to these questions but none of them is experimentally verified. In 1980’s Alan Guth came up with the hypothesis of cosmic inflation i.e expanding universe which is now accepted as part of big bang theory.

Story of our observable universe


In 1962, three Indians

ECG Sudarshan

OMP Bilaniuk

VK Deshpande

Came up with their theoretical framework ‘meta particle’. A hypothetical particle travelling beyond the speed of light. In 1967, Gerald Feinberg published a reach-paper, named ‘tachyon particle’.

The mathematical and theoretical existence of tachyons breaks causality principle, which says cause will always be ahead of the effect.


Let me explain to you how

A glass fell down and broke. Because a glass fell down is a cause and broke is the effect.

Many of us have a misconception that Einstein’s theory of relativity restricts speed limit i.e nothing can exceed the speed of light instead theory predicts, it’s impossible for a body having mass to travel faster than the speed of light as it requires infinite amount of energy with a Technicality, if a body travels lower than the speed of light it will remain travelling lower than that and if traveling faster then speed of light then it will remain travelling faster than that

but there is no observable evidence till now. Therefore, tachyons would not violate the theory of relativity and would possess properties such as

Relativistic length, mass and lifespan would be imaginary

If V>C assuming √-1=i for the cancellation rest mass should be imaginary

Infinite amount of energy is required to accelerate a particle with mass but in contrary, tachyons would lose energy and speed would gradually increase. At the time of energy=0, the speed would be infinite. Moreover, On supplying energy their speed would slow down since tachyons posses negative energy.

The tachyonic Antitelphonic device would come into existence through it we could easily send messages to our past. Although this device would allow you to communicate faster than the speed of light but time would also play its role, it would gradually move backwards. Suppose you send a message ‘how are you’ to your friend on another planet which is 10,000 light years away from earth. So, with the help tachyonicnic device, message travelled faster than the speed of light and because time reversed. He received your message before you have actually sent it. Hence, you would get the reply ‘I am fine’ before you send ‘how are you’. This would lead to past time-traveling paradoxes.

Bosonic string theory’s mathematical equations also predict the existence of fundamentally unstable particle tachyon. CERN in September 2011 announced that they have found tau neutrino travelling faster than the speed of light which was then concluded to be an error in calculations due to defect in fibre optic.


You can not fall into white hole!

You can fall from white hole!

They are unrealistic, hypothetical, imaginative assumption depicted in mathematical equations. The mathematical equation can have two solutions 2^2=4 and (-2)^2=4. Both black holes and white holes are the valid solutions of general theory of relativity. Igor Novikov was the first to put forward the hypothesis of white hole in 1964 termed as anti-black holes which miscellaneously eject matter and light outwards.

Hawking’s radiation revealed black holes emit radiation and ultimately get evaporate. Therefore the information gone inside black hole is lost forever. According to laws of physics, matter can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be switched into another form. Some theories suggested black holes joined with white hole through wormhole. Hence, information sucked by feeding black hole is exhaled by white hole into an alternate universe in another dimension faster than the speed of light while other theories prefer black holes end their lifespan by transforming into white hole when they cannot shrink any more under their own gravitational pull experiencing quantum bounce, a pressure from outside region and eventually blast.

Cosmologist and physicist associate big bang as white hole outburst. White holes are impossible to exist due to violation of universal law- Second law of thermodynamics. The entropy of an isolated system would either remain same or will increase but never decrease.

On June 14, 2006, a gamma-ray burst was detected by Nasa’s satellite swift GRB06014 lasted for 102 seconds. It was considered as supernova outbreak but none of its properties matched with it. It’s properties shockingly matched with little-known knowledge of white hole. It was the strongest evidence ever noticed.

We should not forget black holes were once theoretical. If black holes have existence then……..

why not white holes?